Knee

Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint

How does the Knee joint work?

Find out more in this web based movie.

Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint

An arthroscope is a fiber-optic telescope that can be inserted into a joint (commonly in the knee, shoulder, hip or ankle) to evaluate and treat a number of conditions. A camera is attached to the arthroscope and the image is visualized on a monitor. Most arthroscopic surgery is performed as an outpatient and is usually performed under general anesthesia. Knee arthroscopy is very common and millions of procedures are performed each year around the world.

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Total Knee Replacement (TKR)

A total knee replacement (TKR) or total knee arthroplasty is a surgery that resurfaces arthritic knee joint with an artificial metal or plastic replacement parts called the ‘prostheses’.

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Meniscal Tear

Twisting injuries can cause tears of the medial or lateral menisci. These can occur from a sports-type injury or something as simple as getting out of a chair or standing from a squatting position. The menisci can become brittle as we age and therefore can tear more easily.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction

The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope like structure located in the center of the knee running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears unfortunately it doesn’t heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.

ACL reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure and with recent advances in arthroscopic surgery can now be performed with minimal incision and low complication rates.

ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon

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ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon

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Unicondylar Knee Replacement

This simply means that only a part of the knee joint is replaced through a smaller incision than would normally be used for a total knee replacement. The knee joint is made up of 3 compartments, the patellofemoral and medial and lateral compartments between the femur and tibia (i.e. the long bones of the leg). Often only one of these compartments wears out, usually the medial one. If you have symptoms and X-ray findings suggestive of this then you may be suitable for this procedure.

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Revision Knee Replacement

This means that complete or a part of your previous knee replacement needs to be revised. This operation varies from a very minor adjustment to a massive operation replacing significant amount of bone and hence is difficult to describe in full.

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Knee Arthritis

Arthritis is a general term covering numerous conditions where the joint surface or cartilage wears out. The joint surface is covered by a smooth articular surface that allows pain free movement in the joint. This surface can wear out for a number of reasons; often the definite cause is not known.
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Ligament Tear

Ligaments are tough fibrous bands of connective tissue that support and connect adjoining bones together. These are strong, flexible structures that provide stability to the joints. The ligaments hold the bones together, in normal alignment, and prevent abnormal movements of the joint.

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Patellar Tendinitis

Patellar tendinitis, also known as “jumper’s knee” is an inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in extension of the lower leg.

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Patellofemoral Instability

The knee can be divided into three compartments: patellofemoral, medial and lateral compartment. The patellofemoral compartment is the compartment in the front of the knee between the knee cap and thigh bone.

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Cartilage Injury

Articular cartilage is a complex avascular (no blood supply) tissue which consists of cells called chondrocytes suspended in a collagenous matrix. It appears as a smooth, shiny, white tissue at the ends of the bones which come in contact with each other to form a joint.

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Bursitis

A bursa is a small fluid-filled sac found between soft tissues and bones. It lubricates and acts as a cushion to decrease friction between bones when they move. Bursitis refers to the inflammation and swelling of the bursa.

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Click on the topics below to find out more from the orthopedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.

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